Natural stone heading


Natural stone

Since the beginning of mankind, stone has been used alongside wood and bone for tools and weapons. Metals were only discovered much later. From the flint axes from prehistoric times, marble statues from Greek and Roman times to the contemporary cladding of office buildings, mankind has valued natural stone and further developed the possibilities of working it.

In many villages and towns one can see from the architecture the connection with the stone present in the residential area. Despite steel and concrete, natural stone has not lost its significance. On the contrary, natural stone is being used more and more often in the design of outdoor and indoor spaces and, in recent years, increasingly in private homes.

Natural stone is a collective name for all types of stone that occur on our earth. In order to make a distinction between the different types of stone, they have been divided into three main groups according to their origin:

- Igneous rocks
- Sedimentary rocks (deposition rocks)
- Metamorphic rocks

Igneous rocks
igneous rocks are created by cooling and solidification of liquid rock.

This cooling can take place both in and on the earth's crust. When cooling in the earth's crust (magma), deep rocks are formed. When the liquid rock emerges from the earth's crust (lava) and cools, outflow rocks are formed. As an intermediate form, magma can also solidify in crevices or fracture layers in the earth's crust. These rocks are called gangue rocks.

Deep rocks
These rocks have gradually cooled down and formed under great constant pressure. This has resulted in the formation of coarse-grained rocks in which the crystals are clearly visible to the naked eye. Examples of deep rocks are granites and gabros.

Vulcanic rocks
When magma reaches the earth's surface, we call it lava. The lava cools down relatively quickly and therefore also solidifies faster than in the deep rocks. These rocks contain no or almost no crystals and often have a liquid structure. Due to the escape of gas during volcanic eruptions, these rocks often contain small air bubbles. Examples of outflow rocks are basalt and lava.

Corridor rocks
Corridor rocks form a transition area between the outflow rocks and deep rocks. They often have properties of both rocks. Corridor rocks always have a double name. An example of a gangue rock is basaltic lava.

Sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary rocks are created by depositing clay, sand or limestone layers which are then petrified. These rocks are always formed in rivers and seas. These deposits originate from eroded natural stone or the lime of crustaceans. Examples of sedimentary rocks are sandstone, slate and limestone.

Metamorphic rocks
The movement of the earth plates creates mountains, among other things. This movement causes extreme pressure and temperatures. As a result, the existing rocks undergo a metamorphosis in which both the appearance and properties of the rock change. Examples of Metamorphic rocks are limestone>marble, sandstone>quartzite and granite>gneiss.